Sourcing and supply chain strategy – Mexico

16 11 2006

Purchasing from Mexico and Mexican suppliers?

Don Gringo at Catemaco News and Commentary brought these items to our attention.

Sourcing in Mexico gets easier.  The article points out that doing business with Mexico is easier than in the past.

  • The proximity of Mexico to the US markets impacts communication, logistics, costs and time factors.
  • Mexico has a history of dealing with the US, and are familiar with competitive manufacturing techniques.
  • Relationships are critical to success.
  • Beware of stereotypes.
  • Take the time to find the “right” partner.
  • Do’s and don’ts for doing business in Mexico

Does your supply chain strategy include Mexico?  It should.  Al Brown president of SupplyMex writes that Mexico offers:

  • Logistics infrastructure, highways, rail and port system that has been improved over the past 10 years.
  • Free trade agreements with 42 countries.
  • Global production and quality standards.
  • Stable political and economic environment.
  • Skilled workforce.

Thanks Don.
Related Links

Purchasing.com

Why you should pay attention to free-trade treaties 

Maquiladoras in Mexico

Industrial and Business Parks in Mexico

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Foreign direct investment in Guanajuato, Mexico

6 11 2006

The State of Guanajuato, Mexico has over 572 companies with foreign capital registered and located in the state.

The following information has been translated from an article dated November 6, 2006, published in the newspaper Correo, by Vicente Ruiz, Link.

49% of these foreign companies in Guanajuato are involved in manufacturing, and 29% are commercial operations which together represent an investment greater than 1,000,000,000 (one billion US dollars).

Due to changes in laws regarding foreign investment in Mexico (in 1993, 1995, 2001), 90% of all economic activities in Mexico are completely open to foreign participation and investment.

Mexico’s growing national economy, free trade agreements with 32 countries and geographic location provide great economic and logistics advantages to companies opening operations in Mexico.

In Guanajuato, 50% of all the foreign companies are located in the city of Leon (281), followed by Irapuato (71) Celaya (52), San Miguel Allende (31), Silao (26), San Francisco del Rincon (25), Guanajuato (19) and the rest (67) throughout the state.

Guanajuato occupies the first position for foreign investment of the all the Mexican states in the North-Central region.

Principal industries in Guanajuato that received direct foreign investment include:

  • The automotive industry received US $ 874.2 million
  • Processed food industry (concentrates, preserved products) received US $ 99.1 million
  • Manufacture of paper, cellulose and derivatives received US $ 18.9 million
  • Commerce of non-agricultural items received US $ 17.3 million
  • Chemical manufacturing received US $ 15.9 million
  • Clothing manufacturing received US $ 7.5 million
  • Textile manufacturing received US $ 5.2 million
  • Plastics manufacturing received US $ 5.4 million
  • Food products received US $ 4.8 million

Who has invested in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico:

Country…. Investment (Millions of US dollars)…… %

United States of America……..1’ 009, 214.00………..92.7

Holland………………23, 277.90………….2.1

Spain………………….18, 234.00………….1.7

Germany……………14, 267.30………….1.3

Denmark……………..4, 913.90………….0.5

Taiwan…………………4, 426.00………….0.4

Others………………..14, 549.60………….1.3

Total: USD $ 1’ 088, 882.70 (Millions)

Related Links

Aumenta inversion extrañjera en el Estado de Guanajuato: SE (Spanish)

Secretaria del Economia de Mexico (English)

State of Guanajuato webpage (English-Spanish)

Correo (Spanish)





Mexico manufacturing, US inventories and safety stock

21 10 2006

Manufacturers are returning to Mexico after “experimenting” in the Asia Pacific region. Some of the big reasons for this return are ; to reduce time to market, eliminate the financial costs of inventories in transit, lower the logistics costs, and to strengthen the supply chain by moving closer to just-in-time deliveries.

But moving to Mexico isn’t going to solve all the problems.

A September 2006 article in CFO magazine points out how US businesses are increasing safety stocks “just in case”. Delayed in the USA The article points out how supply chain disruptions are being provoked by an increasingly saturated US highway system and bottlenecks in deepwater ports and railyards.

The good news is that Mexico is close to the USA, a truckload of goods can leave any point in Mexico and arrive at the US destination in as little as 4-5 days. The railyards and new multimodal Interior Port in Guanajuato, Mexico allow manufacturers to establish production facilities in the interior of the country. Exporters can now clear customs and load the sealed container onto the rail-car at the new (2006) high capacity Customs port located in the geographic center of Mexico.

The bad news is that unless the US begins to upgrade their highway, port and rail facilities, supply chain managers in the US will be buying and storing higher levels of inventory to assure continuity of operations, “just in case”.

Related Links

Delayed in the USA – Supply Chain

Industrial and Business Parks in Mexico

AMPIP Mexican Association of Industrial and Business Parks





Maquiladoras in Mexico

28 09 2006

An Internet search for the definition of the terms maquila and maquiladora will turn up quite a variety of ideas and interpretations.

The maquiladoras have created quite an emotional and political reaction on both sides of the US and Mexico border. They have been accused of stealing jobs from the US, promoting sub-standard working conditions, lowering wages, exploiting workers, and not contributing to the Mexican economy.

Despite the controversy, the maquiladoras are growing and thriving in Mexico. They offer attractive benefits to organizations that are seeking competitive production and assembly costs, skilled labor and Mexico’s proximity to the US market. Recently many transnational organizations that moved manufacturing operations to China in the 1990’s have moved back to Mexico due to cost and logistic advantages.

Maquila and Maquiladoras – definitions and activities

  • The term maquila comes from the Spanish term that refers to the portion paid (in grain, flour or oil) to a miller for milling a farmer’s grain.
  • Maquiladoras are legal entities under Mexican law, with special tax privileges, they provide service, assembly or manufacturing operations.
  • Maquiladoras are able to import raw materials or semi-processed materials from foreign countries, in order to service, process or assemble them in Mexico, and then export the finished product back to that country. These activities take place without the collection or payment of import, export or V.A.T. (value added tax) taxes.
  • The maquiladora program was created by Mexico in order for foreign organizations to take advantage of low labor costs in Mexico (primarily the USA), and to provide employment to Mexican workers in Mexico. Initially the maquila operations were located close to the US border. Currently maquila operations can be found throughout Mexico.
  • Maquiladoras can be 100% foreign owned, 100% Mexican owned, or a joint venture between Mexican nationals and foreign investors.
  • Maquiladoras are also known as twin plants, in-bond industries, export assembly plants and offshoring.
  • The maquiladoras in Mexico suffered from a crisis of plant closings in the 1990’s and early 2000’s as many companies moved operations to China. Since 2004, Mexico has seen a resurgence of the maquiladoras.

  • Check with your attorneys and accountants in Mexico about the specific benefits of the maquila program. As of September 2006, there were important legal changes (simplification and consolidation of government compliance and monitoring programs) that will affect current and future maquiladoras.

Related Links

Why you should pay attention to free trade treaties

Industrial and business parks in Mexico


Official government websites of the 32 Mexican states

Maquila and Maquiladoras in Mexico





Why you should pay attention to free trade treaties

27 09 2006

Globalization, transnational companies, global sourcing and outsourcing, free trade, do any of these terms sound familiar?

Obtaining products and raw materials for the lowest price possible is a fundamental concept in business. Today organizations are looking for manufacturers and locations worldwide where they can find lower costs of production in order to remain competitive.

Combine the factors of: quality control, low cost production, logistics costs, and the time involved to get the product to market from the factory, and you understand the challenge of doing business and sourcing products in today’s global economy.

To truly determine the final cost of the product, all these factors must be calculated. This will determine which country offers the best competitive advantage. Make sure you are analyzing any existing free trade agreements when you are seeking suppliers globally.

Free trade treaties between countries have a significant impact upon the final cost of goods. These free trade agreements eliminate the tariffs and taxes on imported and exported goods between the countries involved, depending upon their concentration or percentage of “local” or national raw materials (including labor), as specified in the free trade agreement.

Free trade agreements between countries are of great importance and value only if are exclusive and not accepted by all trading countries. The more free trade is embraced by the international community (through treaties or elimination of import and export tariffs) the less impact the current free trade agreements have in determining competitive advantages for a single country.

Here is a simple example of how the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) free trade treaty between Mexico and the USA, would favor the US supplier over a Chinese supplier.

Example of free trade agreeement competitive advantage:

US supplier to Mexico. If I want to purchase paint made by a US paint manufacturer and have it shipped to my warehouse in Mexico, my total cost to bring the goods to my warehouse in Mexico would be the cost of the paint, plus freight and customs clearing costs. There is no import tariff on this product due to the NAFTA free trade treaty. It would take 4 – 6 days to arrive in my warehouse in Mexico once the product has been shipped from the USA.

US paint $ 20.00 + Freight $ 4.00 + Customs $ 1.00 = $ 25.00 total cost of the US product in my warehouse in Mexico

Chinese supplier to Mexico. If I purchase the same product, from the same transnational company, but it is manufactured in China. Transportation time is 40 days from date product is shipped from China.

Chinese paint $14.00 + Freight $ 8.00 + Customs $ 1.00 + Import tariff (13% of CIF value) $ 2.86 = USD $ 25.86, total cost of the Chinese product in my warehouse in Mexico.

In this example the final cost of the product is $ .86 lower from the US supplier as compared to the Chinese supplier, despite a lower initial product cost. Factor in the financial cost and time required to move the product from the factory to my warehouse, and the lowest final cost in this case would clearly come from purchasing product from the US supplier.

Mexico’s aggressive free trade strategy

Since the 1990’s Mexico has bet heavily on international free trade agreements as a method to improve their competitive advantage and increase their manufacturing base and attract foreign investment.

Mexico has signed 11 existing free trade treaties and 2 complementary economic agreements with 42 countries. It is the only country in the world to have standing free trade agreements with North American and the European community.
The free trade agreements have greatly increased international competition (imports) in Mexico (good for the consumer).

Free trade agreements have allowed Mexican exports to increase and reach destinations and markets that were closed before due to tariffs and costs. There has been increased foreign investment from countries that desired to use Mexico’s free trade competitive advantage for international manufacturing and export projects.

The Mexican manufacturers and suppliers of the national Mexican market were given a “sink or swim” option. Virtually overnight (many of the treaties were phased in over a period of 3 – 10 years), their previous protected market was filled with imported goods (more competition, lower cost, higher quality).

Those that have survived the “invasion”, have had to improve their efficiency, quality and costs. Making them much more competitive in todays global economy.

Britannica’s Definition of free trade:

“Policy in which a government does not discriminate against imports or interfere with exports. A free-trade policy does not necessarily imply that the government abandons all control and taxation of imports and exports, but rather that it refrains from actions specifically designed to hinder international trade, such as tariff barriers, currency restrictions, and import quotas. The theoretical case for free trade is based on Adam Smith’s argument that the division of labour among countries leads to specialization, greater efficiency, and higher aggregate production. The way to foster such a division of labour, Smith believed, is to allow nations to make and sell whatever products can compete successfully in an international market.”

Related Links

Mexico and international free trade agreements